Buoys measure wave height, wave period and (if directional) wave direction. Buoy data from the following organisations contribute to the National Wave Archive: Manly Hydraulics Laboratory (part of the NSW Department of Planning, Industry and Environment (DPIE), which has assumed function of former NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (OEH)) contribute 7 buoys; Bureau of Meteorology contribute 2 buoys; Western Australia Department of Transport (DOT) contribute 29 buoys; the Queensland Department of Environment and Science (DES) contribute 16 buoys; the Defence Technology Agency (DTA), New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) contribute 2 buoys; and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) contribute 6 buoys.
The data (aside from IMOS) is gathered by the Waverider system developed by the Dutch company, Datawell. The Waverider system uses an accelerometer mounted in a loose tethered buoy (0.7 or 0.9m in diameter) to measure the vertical accelerations of the buoy as it moves with the water surface. The accelerations are integrated twice within the buoy and the displacement signal so obtained is then transmitted to a shore station where it is processed to provide wave data statistics. The wave data is stored on the receiving station PC before routine transfer to the managing organisation via email. The wave direction capable Waverider buoys utilise a heave-pitch-roll sensor, two fixed X and Y accelerometers and a three axis fluxgate compass to measure both vertical and horizontal motion. An on-board processor converts the buoy motion to three orthogonal (vertical, north-south, east-west) translation signals that are transmitted to the shore station. DOT Buoys: Older wave data was collected using non-directional Waverider buoys. As technology advanced and directional measuring capabilities were developed in wave buoys, the DOT wave buoy network was gradually upgraded to directional Waverider buoys. Therefore, older datasets do not have directional information whereas newer datasets have directional information. The data from IMOS comes from Spotter Wave Buoys, developed by Sofar Ocean Technologies, which collect data similarly to the Waverider system.
The buoy data from the Manly Hydraulics Laboratory replaces data (has been re-formatted) from the following specific collection - https://catalogue-imos.aodn.org.au:443/geonetwork/srv/api/records/bb7e9d82-3b9c-44c6-8e93-1ee9fd30bf21.
Manly Hydraulics Laboratory Prior to a six to eight month deployment, the operation of a Waverider buoy is tested on the Manly Hydraulics Laboratory Waverider buoy calibration rig to ensure it meets the manufacturers operational specifications. Wave data are transmitted from the Waverider buoy to a shore station where it is processed to produce wave data statistics. The recorded bursts of wave data (normally 34 minutes long starting on the hour) are digitised at 0.5-second intervals (or 0.78-second intervals for a Directional Waverider buoy) and the data are conditioned to remove any erroneous data points. The data are then analysed using two procedures: zero crossing analysis and spectral analysis. The wave data is routinely quality controlled (usually twice per week) using a wave data quality control program developed by Manly Hydraulics Laboratory. The wave data statistics are examined and raw data and spectral plots are viewed by an experience operator to check for any anomalies. Wave statistics from adjacent Waverider stations are also compared to assist in the identification of any "out of range" values. Erroneous wave data records are removed and good quality data is flagged as "Quality Controlled" in the Manly Hydraulics Laboratory wave database.
Australian Bureau of Meteorology See attached Data Quality Manual for details
Department of Environment and Science (DES), Queensland Government The Department of Environment and Science Coastal Impact Unit maintain a network of wave monitoring sites to measure the height and direction of waves along the Queensland coast. As a wave monitoring buoy floats up and down each passing wave, its motion (or heave) is measured and electronically processed. Data from the wave monitoring buoys are transmitted to a nearby receiver station as a radio signal. The receiver stations are comprised of a radio receiver, a computer, a modem and power components. The radio receiver is linked to a computer that stores, analyses and summarises the wave data. The computer controls the timing of data recording, and processes the data in near-real time. The recorded data and analysis results are automatically downloaded from each receiver station every hour to a central computer system (data server) in Brisbane for checking, further processing and archiving. Each receiver station is maintained and updated by specialised technicians and can be remotely accessed via the internet. Batteries are used to ensure that all equipment at each receiver station is backed up in case of power failure, which is likely to occur in critical events such as cyclones. If the transmission between the wave monitoring buoy and the receiver station is interrupted for an extended period, the data can be recovered from the internal memory of the wave monitoring buoy once it has been retrieved from the ocean. The wave monitoring buoys are calibrated before and after each deployment. Normally, a wave monitoring buoy is deployed in the ocean for 12 months before it is then retrieved.
The University of Western Australia (UWA) has deployed surface wave buoys at locations around the Western Australian coastline to complement the existing observations collected by WA Department of Transport, with 4 of these sites funded by the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), which utilise Sofar Ocean Technology Spotter Buoys.
The parameters are calculated on-board the buoys and transmitted at 30 minute to 2 hour intervals via 4G or Iriduium satellite internet. Based on the needs of the supporting project (and data transmission budget) some buoys also transmit back more detailed output from the spectral analysis.
Once the data is received by a server at UWA it is run through an automated quality control process to try and identify and remove any bad measurements (for example caused by temporary submergence of a buoy). The automated quality control is completed following the tests detailed in the QARTOD manual (https://cdn.ioos.noaa.gov/attachments/2019/02/QARTOD_Waves_Update2Final.pdf) for surface waves.
Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Data from the Buoys in Western Australia is kindly provided by Department of Transport (DOT)
Data from the Buoys in Queensland is kindly provided by Department of Environment and Science (DES). The following buoys are part of these joint projects: ? Tweed River entrance sand bypass project (Tweed Heads) ? Port of Brisbane Corporation (North Moreton Bay and Caloundra) ? Gold Coast City Council (Gold Coast) ? Department of Transport and Main Roads (Mooloolaba) ? Gladstone Ports Corporation (Gladstone) ? North Queensland Bulk Ports Corporation Limited (Hay Point, Albatross Bay)
Data collection funded by NSW Department of Planning, Industry and Environment (DPIE) (prior funding by former NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (OEH))
Waverider buoy system and data management undertaken for DPIE by NSW Public Works Manly Hydraulics Laboratory
NZ buoys were deployed by Peter McComb, Oceanum (email@example.com). These data were collected and quality controlled by Metocean Solutions.
Australia?s Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is enabled by the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS). It is operated by a consortium of institutions as an unincorporated joint venture, with the University of Tasmania as Lead Agent.
IMOS data were collected and quality controlled by the University of Western Australia (UWA)