Population connectivity and gene flow in near shore Antarctic Echinoids (Sterechinus neumayeri, Abatus nimrodi and Abatus ingens) was investigated in East Antarctica. This data set consists of microsatellite genotype data from 11 novel loci and mitochondrial DNA sequences from two gene region, COI and 16S. In addition, to determine if changes in temperature and salinity impacted fertilisation success in S. neumayeri, and to determine the appropriate sperm to egg ratio for this type of experiment, a fertilisation experiment was completed using various combinations of temperature, salinity and sperm to egg ratio. Samples were collected near two Australian Antarctic research stations, Casey and Davis, during the 08/09 and 09/10 summer field seasons.
To generate the microsatellite data set, a total of 545 adults, nuemayeri and 26 echinoplutei were collected. Spatial replication was achieved by comparing adult populations between two regions (Casey and Davis). These two regions are separated by approximately 1400 km. Sampling in the Casey region was done at two locations 9 km apart and in the Davis region at five locations separated by 5 - 30 km. Within each location 25-50 individuals were collected from up to three sites approximately 0.5 km apart. Within each site, all individuals were collected within an area less than 50 m2. Adult urchins were collected by dip nets, snorkel or scuba depending on location. Echinoplutei were collected from the water column in two locations in the Davis region using a purpose built plankton net. DNA was extracted using QiagenDNeasy Blood and Tissue extraction kits as per the manufacturer's protocols. PCR amplification was carried out in four multiplex reactions and analysis of the PCR product was carried out on a CEQ 8000 (Beckman Coulter) automated sequencer by capillary separation, and alleles scored as fragment size using CEQ 8000 Genetic Analysis System software (ver. 8.0).
Data available: Data consists of 571 individual genotypes at 11 loci in an excel spreadsheet following the GenAlEx v 6.41 layout. Sites from the Davis region are; Old Wallow 1 (OW1), Old Wallow 2 (OW2), Boyd Island (BO1), Ellis Fjord 1 (EL1), Ellis Fjord 2 (EL2), Ellis Fjord 3 (EL3), Trigwell Island 1 (TR1), Trigwell Island 2 (TR2), Trigwell Island 3 (TR3), Zappit Point 1 (ZP1), Zappit Point 2 (ZP2), Zappit Point 3 (ZP3). Sites from the Casey region are; Browning Peninsula 1 (CB1), Browning Peninsula 2 (CB2), Browning Peninsula 3 (CB3), Sparkes Bay 1 (CS1), Sparkes Bay 2 (CS2).Echinoplutei samples are Hawker Island (D1); Kazak Island 1 (K1); Kazak Island 2 (K2) Data is coded as fragment length, with a zero value representing no data.
To generate the mtDNA sequence data, a total of 24 S. neumayeri individuals were sequenced for the COI gene region with two haplotypes found. For the 16S gene region, 25 individuals were sequenced with three haplotypes founds. For Abatusingens, 51 individuals were sequenced with six CO1 haplotypes and five 16S haplotypes. For Abatus nimrodi (n = 48) there were two CO1 haplotypes and eight 16S haplotypes. In addition, eight A. shackeltoni, four A. philippii and one A. cavernosus sample were included from the Davis region.
Data available: data are available in four FASTA text format files, one for Abatus COI data, one forAbatus 16S data, one for Sterechinus COI data. Individuals are coded with the first two letters representing species (SN = S. neumayeri, AN = A. nimrodi, AI = A. ingens, AS = A. shackletoni, AC= A. cavernosus) the next two representing gene region (CO = COI, 16 = 16S) and either three or four more digits for Davis region samples or five digits beginning with 41 for Casey region samples.
To generate the fertilisation data set, S. neumayeri were collected from Ellis Fjord prior to ice breakout. A total of 12 individuals were screened for the fertilisation experiment, seven males and five females to ensure a suitable cross where greater than 90% fertilisation success was achievable. Sperm were activated with FSW at -1.8 degrees C and sperm concentration determined using a haemocytometer. Three temperature treatments, (-1.8 degrees C, 1 degrees C and 3 degrees C), three salinity treatments (35ppt, 30ppt and 25ppt), and five sperm to egg ratios (50:1, 100:1, 500:1, 1500:1 and 2500:1) were used during fertilisation, with four replicates at each temperature:salinity:sperm to egg ratio combination. After 30 min, three to five drops of 10% formalin were added to each vial to fix eggs and to prevent further fertilisation from occurring. To determine percentage fertilisation, the first 100 eggs encountered from each vial were scored as either fertilised or unfertilised based on the presence or absence of an elevated fertilisation membrane.
Data available: Data are available as an excel file, with three spreadsheets, one for each temperature treatment. Each spreadsheet consists of three tables, one for each salinity treatment. Each salinity treatment table consists of five columns. From left to right these are;
sperm : egg ratio - Sperm to egg ratio,
rep. No. - replicate number,
Fert. - number of fertilised eggs counted
Unfert. - number of unfertilised eggs counted
Mean- mean number of fertilised eggs counted