The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) can trace its history back to 1916, when it began work as the Advisory Council of Science and Industry. It has operated under its current name since 1949. CSIRO carries out research in primary, secondary and tertiary industries as well as other areas such as environment, conservation and human nutrition. There have been several major restructures during the history of CSIRO, in 1978, 1986 and in 1994-1995.
In 1949 the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) changed its name to the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). In 1986 the CSIRO changed the spelling of its name, with the word "Organization" becoming "Organisation".