Data

Alice Mulga Audio Files, Acoustic Indices and False Colour Spectrograms Collection

Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Cleverly, Jamie
Viewed: [[ro.stat.viewed]] Cited: [[ro.stat.cited]] Accessed: [[ro.stat.accessed]]
ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Adc&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2FANDS&rft_id=http://geonetwork.tern.org.au/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/53c8734c-0dcb-45b5-a027-3a9d1af24dbe&rft.title=Alice Mulga Audio Files, Acoustic Indices and False Colour Spectrograms Collection&rft.identifier=http://geonetwork.tern.org.au/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/53c8734c-0dcb-45b5-a027-3a9d1af24dbe&rft.publisher=Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network&rft.description=This dataset contains audio files, acoustic indices and false colour spectrograms for TERN Alice Mulga SuperSite. Acoustic recorders were set up to record for a total of 12 hours per day, split between six hours around dawn and six hours around dusk. The recording schedule aimed at capturing morning and evening bird choruses while minimizing memory and battery requirements. Acoustic indices and false colour spectrograms were created for the recordings. Acoustic indices are summaries of the distribution of the acoustic energy in a recording. They are particularly useful for the analysis of long-term recordings of the environment and can be used to identify sound sources of interest, characterise the soundscape, aid in the assessment of fauna biodiversity, monitor temporal trends and track environmental changes. False colour spectrograms are visual representation of individual acoustic indices or combination of multiple indices. They can highlight the presence of specific sound sources, e.g. birds, insects or weather events, providing a tool for navigating long-term recordings. The Alice Mulga SuperSite was established in 2010 at Pine Hill Cattle Station with research plots located in low open woodland Mulga (Acacia aneura) and non-Acacia, hummock grassland, and river red gum forest. The core 1 ha plot is located in a dense Mulga woodland (cover 70–80%). For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/alice-mulga-supersite/ . An acoustic recorder was deployed at this site in the centre of the core 1 ha plot. Acoustic indices are calculated using the software AnalysisProgram version 19.2.2.1. Long term recordings are resampled at 22.05 kHz and divided into one minute long segments. Acoustic indices are calculated for each segment. Spectral indices are calculated on one minute long spectrograms. Each spectrogram is created by first dividing the one minute long recording into frames of 512 samples each and then calculating the Fast Fourier Transform for each frame. The frequency resolution is 43.1 Hz. The spectra are smoothed using a moving average window of width three and spectral amplitude values are converted into spectral power or decibels (dB).Summary indices are calculated on the waveform envelope or are derived from the spectrograms. The wave envelope is created by taking the maximum absolute value in each frame. Absolute values are converted to dB.False colour spectrograms are produced for each spectral index and combination of indices.dB values are in reference to a hypothetical signal of unit amplitude.Before the indices are calculated, noise is removed form both the waveform and the spectrogram using a modified versions of Lamel's adaptive level equalization (Lamel et al., 1981).Entropy values are subtracted from 1 to obtain a measure of energy concentration; this provides a more intuitive index.To create false colour spectrograms indices are normalised between a minimum and maximum value. These values affect only the visualization and are provided in the configuration file under the data access link.DIFsp and SUMsp are used only for internal checks.&rft.creator=Cleverly, Jamie &rft.date=2022&rft.edition=1.0&rft.relation=https://supersites.tern.org.au/images/resource/Acoustic_Monitoring_21Dec2015.pdf&rft.relation=https://eprints.qut.edu.au/110634/&rft.relation=https://doi.org/10.1109/TASSP.1981.1163642&rft.relation=https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/alice-mulga-supersite/&rft.coverage=Located at Pine Hill Cattle Station, north of Alice Springs in the Northern Territory.&rft.coverage=northlimit=-22.283; southlimit=-22.283; westlimit=133.249; eastLimit=133.249; projection=EPSG:4326&rft_rights=Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0&rft_rights=&rft_rights=Acoustic indices and false colour spectrograms were created using AnalysisProgram version 19.2.2.1. They cannot be compared or collated to data processed with different versions or with a different software. If you intend to use the acoustic indices for management purposes, we recommend re-processing the data using the latest version of the software.&rft_rights=TERN services are provided on an “as-is” and “as available” basis. Users use any TERN services at their discretion and risk. They will be solely responsible for any damage or loss whatsoever that results from such use including use of any data obtained through TERN and any analysis performed using the TERN infrastructure.<br /><br />Web links to and from external, third party websites should not be construed as implying any relationships with and/or endorsement of the external site or its content by TERN.<br /><br />Please advise any work or publications that use this data via the online form at https://www.tern.org.au/research-publications/#reporting&rft_subject=environment&rft_subject=ANIMAL ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR&rft_subject=EARTH SCIENCE&rft_subject=AGRICULTURE&rft_subject=ANIMAL SCIENCE&rft_subject=BIRDS&rft_subject=BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION&rft_subject=ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES&rft_subject=INSECTS&rft_subject=BATS&rft_subject=MAMMALS&rft_subject=ACOUSTIC FREQUENCY&rft_subject=OCEANS&rft_subject=OCEAN ACOUSTICS&rft_subject=AMBIENT NOISE&rft_subject=Animal Behaviour&rft_subject=BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES&rft_subject=ZOOLOGY&rft_subject=Acoustics and Acoustical Devices; Waves&rft_subject=PHYSICAL SCIENCES&rft_subject=CLASSICAL PHYSICS&rft_subject=Behavioural Ecology&rft_subject=ECOLOGY&rft_subject=Conservation and Biodiversity&rft_subject=ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES&rft_subject=ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT&rft_subject=Alice Mulga&rft_subject=Song Meter SM2&rft_subject=AnalysisPrograms 19.2.2.1&rft_subject=sound pressure in air (Volt)&rft_subject=Volt&rft_subject=spectral acoustic complexity index (Unitless)&rft_subject=Unitless&rft_subject=spectral background noise (Decibel)&rft_subject=Decibel&rft_subject=spectral cover (Unitless)&rft_subject=spectral events (Number)&rft_subject=Number&rft_subject=spectral horizontal ridge (Decibel)&rft_subject=spectral negative ridge (Decibel)&rft_subject=spectral oscillation (Number)&rft_subject=spectral positive ridge (Decibel)&rft_subject=spectral power minus noise (Decibel)&rft_subject=spectral maximum ridge (Decibel)&rft_subject=spectral peak tracks (Number)&rft_subject=spectral temporal entropy (Unitless)&rft_subject=spectral vertical ridge (Decibel)&rft_subject=3-gram count (Unitless)&rft_subject=acoustic complexity index (Unitless)&rft_subject=activity (Unitless)&rft_subject=average signal amplitude (Decibel)&rft_subject=average signal to noise ratio of activity frames (Decibel)&rft_subject=background noise (Decibel)&rft_subject=clipping index (Number)&rft_subject=cluster count (Unitless)&rft_subject=entropy of average spectrum (Unitless)&rft_subject=entropy of coefficient of variation (Unitless)&rft_subject=entropy of peaks spectrum (Unitless)&rft_subject=events per second (Number)&rft_subject=high amplitude index (Number)&rft_subject=high frequency cover (Unitless)&rft_subject=low frequency cover (Unitless)&rft_subject=mid frequency cover (Unitless)&rft_subject=normalized difference soundscape index (Unitless)&rft_subject=signal to noise ratio (Decibel)&rft_subject=spectral density (Unitless)&rft_subject=temporal entropy (Unitless)&rft_subject=zero signal (Number)&rft_subject=entropy of variance spectrum (Unitless)&rft_subject=Point Resolution&rft_subject=< 1 second&rft_subject=Bioacoustic indices&rft_subject=False colour spectrograms&rft_subject=Acoustic recordings&rft_subject=Birds&rft_subject=Chiroptera&rft_subject=Marsupials&rft_subject=Insects&rft.type=dataset&rft.language=English Access the data

Licence & Rights:

Open Licence view details
CC-BY

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

Acoustic indices and false colour spectrograms were created using AnalysisProgram version 19.2.2.1. They cannot be compared or collated to data processed with different versions or with a different software. If you intend to use the acoustic indices for management purposes, we recommend re-processing the data using the latest version of the software.

TERN services are provided on an “as-is” and “as available” basis. Users use any TERN services at their discretion and risk. They will be solely responsible for any damage or loss whatsoever that results from such use including use of any data obtained through TERN and any analysis performed using the TERN infrastructure.

Web links to and from external, third party websites should not be construed as implying any relationships with and/or endorsement of the external site or its content by TERN.

Please advise any work or publications that use this data via the online form at https://www.tern.org.au/research-publications/#reporting

Access:

Open view details

unclassified

Contact Information

Street Address:
Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
Building 1019, 80 Meiers Rd
QLD 4068
Australia
Ph: +61 7 3365 9097

esupport@tern.org.au

Brief description

This dataset contains audio files, acoustic indices and false colour spectrograms for TERN Alice Mulga SuperSite. Acoustic recorders were set up to record for a total of 12 hours per day, split between six hours around dawn and six hours around dusk. The recording schedule aimed at capturing morning and evening bird choruses while minimizing memory and battery requirements.

Acoustic indices and false colour spectrograms were created for the recordings. Acoustic indices are summaries of the distribution of the acoustic energy in a recording. They are particularly useful for the analysis of long-term recordings of the environment and can be used to identify sound sources of interest, characterise the soundscape, aid in the assessment of fauna biodiversity, monitor temporal trends and track environmental changes. False colour spectrograms are visual representation of individual acoustic indices or combination of multiple indices. They can highlight the presence of specific sound sources, e.g. birds, insects or weather events, providing a tool for navigating long-term recordings.

The Alice Mulga SuperSite was established in 2010 at Pine Hill Cattle Station with research plots located in low open woodland Mulga (Acacia aneura) and non-Acacia, hummock grassland, and river red gum forest. The core 1 ha plot is located in a dense Mulga woodland (cover 70–80%). For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/alice-mulga-supersite/ .

An acoustic recorder was deployed at this site in the centre of the core 1 ha plot.

Notes

Data Processing
Acoustic indices and false colour spectrograms were created using the software AnalysisPrograms (version 19.2.2.1)

Lineage

Acoustic indices are calculated using the software AnalysisProgram version 19.2.2.1. Long term recordings are resampled at 22.05 kHz and divided into one minute long segments. Acoustic indices are calculated for each segment.

Spectral indices are calculated on one minute long spectrograms. Each spectrogram is created by first dividing the one minute long recording into frames of 512 samples each and then calculating the Fast Fourier Transform for each frame. The frequency resolution is 43.1 Hz. The spectra are smoothed using a moving average window of width three and spectral amplitude values are converted into spectral power or decibels (dB).

Summary indices are calculated on the waveform envelope or are derived from the spectrograms. The wave envelope is created by taking the maximum absolute value in each frame. Absolute values are converted to dB.

False colour spectrograms are produced for each spectral index and combination of indices.

dB values are in reference to a hypothetical signal of unit amplitude.

Before the indices are calculated, noise is removed form both the waveform and the spectrogram using a modified versions of Lamel's adaptive level equalization (Lamel et al., 1981).

Entropy values are subtracted from 1 to obtain a measure of energy concentration; this provides a more intuitive index.

To create false colour spectrograms indices are normalised between a minimum and maximum value. These values affect only the visualization and are provided in the configuration file under the data access link.

DIFsp and SUMsp are used only for internal checks.

Notes

Credit
We at TERN acknowledge the Traditional Owners and Custodians throughout Australia, New Zealand and all nations. We honour their profound connections to land, water, biodiversity and culture and pay our respects to their Elders past, present and emerging.

The Alice Mulga SuperSite was established in 2010 in partnership with the University of Technology Sydney. The Alice Mulga SuperSite infrastructure was transferred in 2021 to James Cook University Cairns.

This work was funded by the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN), an Australian Government National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) project.

Purpose
Long-term acoustic recordings are collected to characterise the acoustic sources in the ecosystem. Recordings can be used to estimate biodiversity, monitor temporal changes in the soundscape, compare the acoustic characteristics of different locations, and assess the effect of particular events such as bushfires and floods.

Created: 2012-10-17

Issued: 2022-01-21

Modified: 2014-07-14

Data time period: 2012-10-17

Click to explore relationships graph

133.249,-22.283

133.249,-22.283

text: Located at Pine Hill Cattle Station, north of Alice Springs in the Northern Territory.

Subjects
3-gram count (Unitless) | < 1 second | ACOUSTIC FREQUENCY | AGRICULTURE | AMBIENT NOISE | ANIMAL ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR | ANIMAL SCIENCE | ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES | Acoustic recordings | Acoustics and Acoustical Devices; Waves | Alice Mulga | AnalysisPrograms 19.2.2.1 | Animal Behaviour | BATS | BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION | Biological Sciences | BIRDS | Behavioural Ecology | Bioacoustic indices | Birds | Classical Physics | Chiroptera | Conservation and Biodiversity | Decibel | EARTH SCIENCE | Ecology | Environmental Science and Management | Environmental Sciences | False colour spectrograms | INSECTS | Insects | MAMMALS | Marsupials | Number | OCEAN ACOUSTICS | OCEANS | Physical Sciences | Point Resolution | Song Meter SM2 | Unitless | Volt | Zoology | acoustic complexity index (Unitless) | activity (Unitless) | average signal amplitude (Decibel) | average signal to noise ratio of activity frames (Decibel) | background noise (Decibel) | clipping index (Number) | cluster count (Unitless) | entropy of average spectrum (Unitless) | entropy of coefficient of variation (Unitless) | entropy of peaks spectrum (Unitless) | entropy of variance spectrum (Unitless) | environment | events per second (Number) | high amplitude index (Number) | high frequency cover (Unitless) | low frequency cover (Unitless) | mid frequency cover (Unitless) | normalized difference soundscape index (Unitless) | signal to noise ratio (Decibel) | sound pressure in air (Volt) | spectral acoustic complexity index (Unitless) | spectral background noise (Decibel) | spectral cover (Unitless) | spectral density (Unitless) | spectral events (Number) | spectral horizontal ridge (Decibel) | spectral maximum ridge (Decibel) | spectral negative ridge (Decibel) | spectral oscillation (Number) | spectral peak tracks (Number) | spectral positive ridge (Decibel) | spectral power minus noise (Decibel) | spectral temporal entropy (Unitless) | spectral vertical ridge (Decibel) | temporal entropy (Unitless) | zero signal (Number) |

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