Brief descriptionThe Marine chapter of the 2016 State of the Environment (SoE) report incorporates multiple expert templates developed from streams of marine data. This metadata record describes the Expert Assessment "Pressures on the marine environment associated with shipping". The full Expert Assessment, including figures and tables (where provided), is attached to this record. Where available, the Data Stream(s) used to generate this Expert Assessment are accessible through the "On-line Resources" section of this record. ---------------------------------------- DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESSURE Australia as an island relies heavily on shipping for transportation of its imports and exports. In 2013–14, approximately 1274 million tonnes of cargo were loaded and 151 million tonnes discharged at Australian wharves by 5499 vessels that made 28 714 port calls. As this shipping traverses Australian waters there is potential for adverse interactions with the marine environment across all regions (see Figure 1). Specifically, there is a risk of environmental damage from collision or grounding of vessels, and ship strike, which is a significant cause of anthropogenic mortality to whales worldwide. Also although not addressed specifically here it should be noted small recreational vessels regularly injure dugongs, turtles, and dolphins. DATA STREAM(S) USED IN EXPERT ASSESSMENT • AIS: AIS data for 2014, coverage over all regions, based on CTS product from AMSA • Ship strike database: Coverage over all regions 1872-2015. For the assessment we mainly looked at post 2000 records. • Shipping statistics: Coverage over all regions from 1998-2013 (Predictions from infrastructure Australia used for 2014-2015 growth). ---------------------------------------- 2016 SOE ASSESSMENT SUMMARY [see attached Expert Assessment for full details] • 2016 • Assessment grade: Low Assessment trend: Deteriorating Confidence grade: High level of consensus Confidence trend: High level of consensus Comparability: Comparable • 2011 •
LineageStatement: QUALITY OF DATA USED IN THE ASSESSMENT
• AIS : Quality is good, some issues in a small % of the data.
• Ship strike database : There are some quality issues:
Not all collisions are detected or noticed, especially for modern larger vessels (Silber et al 2012)
1) Depending on the species and location bodies may float out to sea or sink, and not be observed
2) Reporting rates and collating of data may not be consistent
3) There is issues with species identification as many reports of collision the whale species is unknown or possibly unreliable.
4) It is often difficult to establish cause of death and addressing issues such as was it dead/sick already and that is why struck.
The database is currently being updated/finalised.
• Shipping statistics : Good.
To describe the pressures on the marine environment associated with shipping for use in the Marine chapter of the 2016 State of the Environment report.
Created: 17 06 2016
162.42188,-7.20703 162.42188,-47.46094 102.65625,-47.46094 102.65625,-7.20703 162.42188,-7.20703
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EXPERT ASSESSMENT - Pressures of Shipping [direct download] (Pressures_shipping_final.pdf)
(DATA STREAM USED IN EXPERT ASSESSMENT - Automated Identification System (AIS) [information request only, no direct access to data available])
(DATA STREAM USED IN EXPERT ASSESSMENT - ship strike - AMMC National Marine Mammal Database [online access point])
(DATA STREAM USED IN EXPERT ASSESSMENT - shipping statistics (BITRE) [online access point])
(State of the Environment (SoE) reporting webpage)
- global : b5487f41-83e6-46f5-9170-7c4709350e26